Rare Skin Diseases In Humans – Medically reviewed by Debra Sullivan, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., CNE, COI – Shane Murphy and Niesha Davis – Updated June 30, 2020
Millions of Americans live with at least one skin condition. You are probably familiar with the most common ones like acne, eczema and rosacea. In fact, there is a good chance you have one yourself.
Rare Skin Diseases In Humans
There are also many rare skin conditions that you may not be aware of. It can range from mild to life-threatening. In some cases, they can affect the quality of life of the developing person.
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Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory condition that causes sores to form on parts of the body where the skin touches the skin. The most common areas where pimples appear are:
Although the cause of HS is unknown, it is likely that hormones play a role in its development as it usually begins during puberty.
Up to 2 percent of the population has this condition. It is more common in people who are overweight or who smoke. Women are more than three times more likely to have HS than men.
Did you know that people with hidradenitis suppurativa are at increased risk for certain conditions (or comorbidities), such as: acne, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) follicular occlusion tetrad (a group of inflammatory skin conditions that includes acne conglobata, skin dissection cellulitis head). , and pilonidal). sinus disease) metabolic syndrome polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) squamous cell carcinoma of the skin affected by type 2 diabetes.
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The first symptom of HS is acne that looks like pimples or acne. These pimples remain on the skin or disappear and reappear.
If left untreated, more serious symptoms can occur, including scarring, infection, and a rash that breaks out and discharges a foul-smelling fluid.
There is currently no cure for HS, but there are several treatment options available to help with symptoms. This includes:
Inverse psoriasis is sometimes called intertriginous psoriasis. Like HS, this condition causes red sores on parts of the body where the skin touches the skin. These lesions do not resemble ulcers. They look smooth and shiny.
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Many people with reverse psoriasis also have at least one other type of psoriasis elsewhere on their body. Experts aren’t sure exactly what causes psoriasis, but genetics and the immune system are major contributing factors.
Psoriasis affects approximately 3 percent of people worldwide, and 3 to 7 percent of people with psoriasis have reverse psoriasis.
Because the skin in the upper friction areas of the body is usually sensitive, treating the condition can be difficult. Steroid creams and topical ointments can be effective, but often cause painful irritation if overdone.
People living with more severe cases of inverse psoriasis may also need ultraviolet B (UVB) light therapy or injectable biologics to manage their condition.
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Harlequin ichthyosis is a rare genetic disorder that causes children to be born with hard, thick skin that forms diamond-shaped scales on their bodies.
These plates, separated by deep cracks, can affect the shape of the eyelids, mouth, nose and ears. It can also limit the movement of limbs and chest.
About 200 cases have been reported worldwide. The condition is caused by a mutation in the ABCA12 gene, which allows the body to make a protein needed for normal skin cell development.
Mutations prevent the transport of lipids in the upper layer of the skin and lead to scaly plaques. Plaque makes it difficult:
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Because biological carriers rarely show symptoms, genetic testing can determine gene changes and determine your chances of developing or passing on any genetic disease.
The most common treatment for harlequin ichthyosis is a strict regimen of skin softeners and skin resurfacing moisturizers. In severe cases, oral retinoids may also be used.
Morgellon’s disease is a rare condition in which fibers and small particles protrude from skin lesions, creating a pulling sensation on the skin.
Little is known about the condition, but it affects more than 14,000 families, according to the Morgellons Research Foundation.
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Some doctors believe it is a psychological problem because the symptoms are similar to a mental health disorder called delusional infestation.
People with the condition are generally advised to stay close to their healthcare team and seek treatment for symptoms such as anxiety and depression.
Elastoderma is a rare condition characterized by increased skin laxity in certain parts of the body. This causes the skin to droop or hang in loose folds.
It can appear in any part of the body, but the neck and extremities are most often affected, especially around the elbows and knees.
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Less than 1 in 1,000,000 people worldwide have the condition. The exact cause of elastoderma is unknown. It is considered the result of overproduction of elastin, a protein that provides structural support for organs and tissues.
There is no cure or standard treatment for elastoderma. Some people will undergo surgery to remove the affected area, but loose skin often returns after surgery.
Pilonidal sinus disease causes a small hole or tunnel under or in the buttock fold. Symptoms are not always obvious, so most people do not seek treatment, or even notice the condition, until the problem arises.
It grows when the hair between the buttocks rubs against each other. The resulting friction and pressure pushes the hair inward, causing it to grow back.
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This moderate condition is seen in 10 to 26 people out of every 100,000. Most people with the condition are between the ages of 15 and 30, and the incidence in men is twice as high as in women.
It often affects people who work in jobs that require long periods of sitting. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is also a comorbidity.
Treatment is usually progressive and involves draining the affected pilonidal sinus from all the more visible. Antibiotics, warm compresses and topical ointments are often used.
If you are one of the 40 percent of people with this condition who have recurring abscesses, be sure to talk to your doctor about additional surgical options.
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Pemphigus is classified as an autoimmune disease that causes your immune system to attack healthy epidermal cells. The epidermis is the top layer of the skin.
As with HS, blisters or blisters appear where the skin is naturally touched or rubbed. It also appears in or on:
Most people with pemphigus have a type known as pemphigus vulgaris. It occurs in 0.1 to 2.7 people out of every 100,000.
Vegetative pemphigus can be fatal if left untreated. Treatment aims to remove lesions or boils and prevent recurrence.
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Corticosteroids or other steroids that reduce inflammation are usually the first line of defense. In addition, you can undergo surgery to remove wounds or blisters, while making sure to clean and dress every day.
Mouth and throat medications include mouthwash or clobetasol, corticosteroids, and ointments used to treat oral diseases.
About 780,000 Americans live with it. There are about 38,000 new cases every year. Researchers suspect that genetics, the immune system and the environment play a role in the development of Crohn’s disease.
People with Crohn’s disease experience skin lesions as a result of the disease. This is known as skin plague.
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Skin lesions are similar to genital warts and develop after intestinal disease manifests in the skin or other organs outside the digestive tract. This includes the eyes, liver and bladder. It can also affect the joints.
Surgery is a treatment option for skin lesions. If your Crohn’s disease and lesions have metastasized or spread, then they can be painful and lead to life-threatening complications. There are several treatment options currently available for this stage.
Sneddon-Wilkinson disease is a condition where pus-like lesions appear on the skin in clusters. It is also known as subcorneal pustular dermatitis (SPD).
Experts aren’t sure what causes it. A rare and often misdiagnosed disease, it usually affects people over 40, especially women. As such, the exact prevalence is unknown.
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As with HS, soft, pus lumps form between the skin and rub off a lot. Skin lesions develop on the body, between skin folds and in the genital area. They “explode” due to friction.
An itchy or burning sensation may accompany these blisters. This feeling is accompanied by peeling and discoloration of the skin. Although chronic and painful, this skin condition is not fatal.
The treatment of choice for this disease is the antibiotic dapsone, with a dose of 50 to 200 milligrams (mg) administered orally daily.
This mainly affects people from Asia, only about 20 cases have been documented worldwide. No one knows why.
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Flat lesions, or macules, in the form of colored skin in small clusters. It usually does not have pus, but sometimes it can. Some people’s skin clears up naturally over time, while others have symptoms for years.
This condition is mild, non-fatal and can be treated with topical creams. Corticosteroids are the best treatment option and can even help with pigmentation in some cases.
Dowling-Degos disease is a genetic disorder that causes dark skin, especially in the folds, such as the armpits, groin, and joints.
Most lesions are small and look like blackheads, but red spots that look like acne can develop
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