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Native Peoples Of North America

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Native Americans, or the original inhabitants, lived there thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers. Many of these peoples still live in North and South America today.

Native Peoples Of North America

Native Peoples Of North America

Arctic peoples, including the Inuit and Aleuts, lived in the northern parts of North America. Caribs, Aztecs, Mayans, Incas, and other groups lived in the Caribbean, Central America (Mexico and Central America), and South America.

Map Of North And South America With Location Of Native American…

Many other peoples lived in the area of ​​present-day Canada and the United States. These people are known in the United States as Native Americans or American Indians. In Canada, they are known as First Nations.

The first people in the Americas may have traveled from Asia to what is now Alaska. Scientists believe this happened about 60,000 to 20,000 years ago. During this period, the Bering Strait may have been the landmass separating present-day Asia and North America. Until about 10,000 BC. n. no. these populations spread across North, Central and South America.

Some of the earliest North Americans hunted large animals such as the mastodon, which are now extinct. Some of the tools used by these people, including spear points, have been found near Clovis, New Mexico. Dots date back to 9000 BC. Other early humans hunted fish and gathered seeds and wild plants. Most of them had to wander from place to place in search of food.

Over time, the people of present-day Mexico learned to plant and harvest corn. Over the millennia, this skill spread north and east. Later, beans, pumpkins and other plants were also grown as crops. Groups of farmers began to establish more permanent settlements near their fields.

Native Americans In The Northeastern United States

Many large agricultural cultures, such as the Hohokam and Mogollon, flourished in what is now the American Southwest. Irrigation canals were dug to bring water to the crops. By 100 AD, the ancestral Pueblo culture was established on the plateau where Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah now meet. Later ancestors, the Pueblo, built large buildings on the cliffs. They also built multi-storied houses from a type of sun-baked mud called adobe.

East of the Mississippi River, many ancient cultures left monuments in the form of mounds. From about 500 BC to 100 AD, the Adena people were hunter-gatherers who built snake-shaped mounds. Beginning in 200 BC, the Hopewell people settled in villages along the Ohio River Valley, growing corn, beans, and pumpkins and building large mounds. About 900 years later, the Mississippian peoples of the South and Midwest built huge mounds to bury their dead and perform rituals.

Over time, the inhabitants of North America were divided into 240 groups. These groups are sometimes called tribes or nations. The groups spoke different languages ​​even when they lived close to each other. However, neighboring groups often had similar lifestyles.

Native Peoples Of North America

Native Americans in eastern North America include the Iroquois in the northeast and the Rivers in the southeast. People in these regions used tree bark and branches to make houses, weapons, tools, and canoes. They made clothes from the skins of deer and other animals. They hunted, fished and gathered wild plants. They also harvested corn, pumpkins, beans and tobacco.

Native People Of The American Northeast

The inhabitants of the Great Plains in central North America include the Cheyenne and Sioux. Lowland grasses provided food for large herds of grazing animals, including elk, deer, antelope, and bison (bison). The Plains Indians got everything they needed from the bison. They ate meat, made tapestries and clothes from skins, and made tools from bones.

The Pueblo, Navajo, and other groups lived in the arid Southwest. People there learned to farm with very little water. Some built houses of stone and brick (clay fired in the sun). Others lived in simple shelters.

Along the west coast lived many groups of California Indians. They hunted fish and some groups made flour from acorns. The Chumash built dome-shaped houses. The Miwok built houses that were partially underground.

The Great Basin was home to the Shoshone and other peoples. This dry area included present-day Nevada and Utah. These people migrated in search of food. They hunted small animals, caught fish and gathered fruits, nuts, seeds and roots.

Otc’s Land Acknowledgement And Native American Resources

North of this area lived the Nez Perce, Flathead, and other Plateau Indian groups. These people hunted and hunted. They often stayed in the villages during the winter. In summer they camp in tents or wigwams.

Many people lived along the northwest coast, which stretches between present-day California and Alaska. These include Tlingit and Kwakiutl. The inhabitants of this region fished in the sea and rivers. Some groups hunted whales. They made big houses and strong canoes out of wood.

Denesulin, Cree and other peoples lived in the subarctic. The region was located south of the Arctic in present-day Canada and Alaska. Subarctic people depend on caribou, moose and beaver. They made tents and clothes from animal skins.

Native Peoples Of North America

After settling into agricultural societies, the indigenous people of Mesoamerica (southern Mexico and Central America) built some of the world’s greatest civilizations. The giant sculptures of the Olmecs date from around 1000 BC. More than 1,000 years later, the Central American Maya built rock temples and huge monuments carved with images of gods and sacred animals. They created a calendar and an elaborate mathematical system. They preserved what they knew in books written in hieroglyphs. In present-day Mexico, early Native American nations included the Toltecs, Zapotecs, and Aztecs. The Aztecs were known for their beautiful art and the magnificent buildings of their capital, Tenochtitlan.

Chart: How Indigenous Are Countries In The Americas?

In South America, as in North America, American Indians developed different lifestyles depending on the environment. Hunters in the southern lowlands of South America used clubs, bows and arrows to hunt the guanaco, an animal related to the llama, for its meat and skin. Nandu, a large flightless bird related to the ostrich, was also hunted. The natives of the southwest coast built large canoes out of beech bark to navigate the sea. They hunted fish, seals and sea otters and gathered shellfish and wild plants. In the forested northern tropical lowlands, women tended the fields while men hunted, fished and fought with air rifles.

American Indians built large villages on the floor of the Andes. Farmers grow indigenous potatoes in the region. Maize, legumes and pumpkins were also grown on the irrigated fields. Llamas and alpacas were used to carry heavy loads. Llama and alpaca wool is made into beautiful textiles. Andean peoples were skilled in pottery and metalwork. The Incas, the most powerful indigenous group in the Andes, once ruled a large area from northern Ecuador to northern Chile.

Europeans began arriving in America in the late 15th century. They called the people they met there Indians because they believed they had arrived in the East Indies in Asia.

Europeans brought new plants and animals. For example, the horse caused a great change in local life. Horse herds could travel great distances and hunt bison much more easily than before. Locals also welcomed European goods such as textiles, metal tools and weapons.

Native Tribes Of North America Map Poster

But Europeans also brought diseases, including measles and smallpox. Most of the natives could not resist these diseases because their ancestors were not exposed to them. Smallpox soon wiped out many groups. Europeans also harassed those who survived the disease in many other ways. Many of them were enslaved, forced to change their way of life and leave their land.

Different Europeans came to America for different reasons. Some wanted to explore, others sought wealth, and still others wanted to expand their territory.

In 1520, Spanish soldiers conquered the Aztec Empire. They soon conquered the rest of central and southern Mexico and much of Central America. Another group from Spain conquered the Inca Empire around 1532. From there they spread throughout most of South America. In 1530, the Portuguese settled in the territory of today’s Brazil.

Native Peoples Of North America

The Spanish and Portuguese enslaved much of the local population to work on large plantations or mines. The Spanish sent priests from Mexico to establish missions in the Americas. The purpose of the missions was to convert the local population to the Catholic faith. Indians who tried to preserve their customs were punished.

Video Lessons For Native American Heritage Month

The French settled in parts of what is now Canada. They wanted to make money from the fur trade.

Large numbers of people from England settled in eastern North America in the 17th century. Some Indians initially helped the English. But as more English colonists came, they took more land. Unlike the natives, the colonists thought so

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