Energy Efficient Home Plans For Cold Climates – At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new field-tested roof system improves efficiency by using radiation, convection and insulation controls, including a passive ventilation system that moves air from under the attic to a sloped air space above the roof.
() — A new type of roof and attic system tested at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory keeps homes cool in the summer and prevents heat loss in the winter, multi-season efficiency in an unusual roof and attic design.
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The system improves efficiency by using radiation, convection and insulation controls, including a passive ventilation system that moves air from the belly of the attic to the sloping air space above the roof.
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“Heat coming into the house is being conducted and removed,” said Bill Miller of the ORNL Building Envelope Group. “And with a passive ventilation scheme, there are no moving parts, so performance is guaranteed.”
The new roof system design can be equipped with almost all roofing products. The heart of the design is covered with foil polystyrene insulation that fits between the rafters of the new structure or can be attached over an existing shingle roof system. Homeowners don’t have to remove the old siding, which saves money.
Improperly sealed HVAC ducts leak conditioned air into the attic, typically costing homeowners $100 to $300 a year, based on ORNL computer simulations.
To solve the problem, some homeowners pay $8,000 to seal their attic with spray foam, saving them more than $460 a year. For a lower upfront cost and the same amount of depreciation, homeowners can modify their attic for $2,000 and save $100 a year.
Ornl Roof And Attic Design Proves Efficient In Summer And Winter
Looking to the future, Miller and colleagues are working on projects with lower initial installation costs and greater overall profitability.
The paper, “Roof Deck Prototype Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer,” was published by the National Association of Roofing Contractors. The authors of the paper are V. Miller, Stan Atherton, and Russell Graves of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Billy Ellis of Billy Ellis Roofing.
Reference: ORNL Roof and Attic Designs Efficient in Summer and Winter (2012, September 10) Retrieved November 20, 2023 from https:///news/2012-09-ornl-roof-attic-efficient-summer.html
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A World War II cleanup explosion may have polluted the ocean 16 minutes ago. New study shows better way to measure impact Scientific Publications 28 minutes ago 400-year-old mystery of why early eruptions produced purple smoke solved by scientists 30 minutes ago ago Research reveals new clues about how whales and dolphins use echolocation 1 hour ago 2D From to 3D: MXene’s path to an energy storage revolution and more 1 hour ago ago AI finds formula to predict monster waves using 700-year-old data 2 hours ago Study examines how massive 2022 eruption changed stratospheric chemistry and dynamics 2 hours ago Mushroom gene Answer prediction using a new machine learning approach 4 hours ago Unraveling the surprisingly complex story of crocodiles 4 hours ago Researchers observe how ‘promoters’ behave in real time in a catalytic reaction 4 hours ago Passive cooling is where building design and materials are used to control temperature in hot weather. To be comfortable, buildings in all Australian climates require some form of cooling at some time of the year, and this need increases as the climate warms. There are 2 main components of passive cooling: building cooling and people cooling.
Passive cooling is the cheapest way to cool a house, especially from an environmental perspective. There are many ways you can design or modify your home to achieve comfort through passive cooling.
Passive cooling is becoming increasingly important as our climate changes. Climate change will increase our average temperature and extreme events such as heat waves will occur more frequently. By carefully designing passive cooling, we can keep our homes comfortable and reduce energy costs.
The following passive cooling tips are generally applicable in any climate. For specific tips on designing your climate zone, see Design for Climate.
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This home uses passive cooling strategies when available and uses a mechanical cooling system in extreme weather.
With passive cooling, building envelopes are designed to minimize heat gain during the day, maximize heat loss at night, and promote cool breezes when possible. Considerations include:
All climates in Australia except tropical (climate zone 1) require heating in winter and this affects the cooling advice. Look into passive heating to balance your home’s heating requirements.
Heat enters and leaves the house throughout the building – roof, walls, floors and windows. The layout of the interior – walls, doors and room layout – also affects the distribution of heat inside the house.
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Soil and soil temperatures vary widely in Australia. A ground joint is where concrete floors (and sometimes walls) come into direct contact with the ground. In a well-insulated, well-shaded house, it “pulls” a stable, deep soil temperature above the floor, giving the house the upper hand in temperature regulation.
Ground-bonded concrete slabs are effective for passive cooling where deep ground temperatures are low (3 meters or more), such as in much of South Australia. This approach should be avoided in climates where deep soil temperatures favor heat gain, such as in most northern latitudes where adequate soil temperatures are not beneficial at depth. In these regions, use open ventilated floors with high levels of insulation to prevent heat gain. Get expert building design tips for determining deep soil temperatures.
Note that board edge insulation (shown on the right of the sketch) improves the coupling effect at the temperature controlled edges of the board.
“Good thermal mass” generally describes a block of material with high thermal mass and long thermal lag.
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Thermal mass is often used to heat your home in the winter (allowing the sun to heat the mass during the day and release that heat at night). But it is important to ensure that the thermal mass in your home is protected from the summer sun. An improperly placed table heats up and emits heat at night.
In summer, shade thermal mass in living areas during the day and avoid or limit thermal mass in sleeping areas above. In climates where little or no heating is required, low mass is usually the preferred option.
Insulation is important for passive cooling. The National Building Code mandates minimum levels of insulation for ceilings, walls, and floors, depending on your climate and other building characteristics. Choosing the right insulation products and paying special attention to installation will help maximize thermal comfort and prevent condensation.
You can also explore additional, less common insulation options. For example, green roofs and walls can provide both insulation and shading.
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Well-ventilated roof spaces facilitate passive cooling, providing a buffer zone between indoor and outdoor spaces in the hardest shade: the roof.
Fans, like vortices, can reduce the temperature difference between the ceiling insulation, increasing its efficiency. The use of foil insulation and light-colored roofing limits the flow of radiant heat through the roof space. Always make sure the ceiling is sealed against scratches.
Window shading is a critical element in passive cooling. Glass is the main source of heat (through direct radiation and conduction) and cooling (through cross-ventilation, stacking and ventilation; cold breezes and night sweeps).
The following diagram shows why shading is so important, especially when the sun hits the glass at a low angle, such as through east and west facing glass in the morning and afternoon.
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Choosing windows with good thermal performance (eg double glazing) will reduce the heat generated by the sun hitting the window. But keeping the sun out of the window will have a greater effect.
If adequate shading is not possible, for example near boundaries, it may be necessary to specify glazing with a solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) as low as possible and certainly not more than 0.20 (this means only 20% of the sun’s radiation will pass through).
Double glazing can help with passive cooling because its low conductivity reduces the heating effect of hot outside air approaching the glass. Light colored frames should also be considered as they absorb less heat and uPVC, timber or thermally broken aluminum frames offer better insulation than conventional single extruded aluminum or steel frame.
Greenery plays a big role in keeping neighborhoods and homes cool. Its impact on urban heat management is increasingly recognized as climate change and urban development intensify.
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The outdoor spaces around your home can be a source of heat for your home. Green gardens and plants, rather than hard surfaces, can help reduce air temperatures on those surfaces and in and around your home. Plants and soil provide a cooling effect through the process of evaporation, and plants can do the same.
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